Context: Towards a model of daily urban dynamics
Background and theoretical frameworks
Awareness / activity spaces
Data and the study area
Estimating anchor points
Results and Conclusions
Excellent residential (night-time) population data (from censuses etc.).
But limited ambient (day-time) population data.
Ambient population is relevant to diverse fields:
Disease spread / mitigation
Pollution / disease burdens
Crime (e.g. )
. . .
Evaluate the extent to which crowd-sourced data can be used to gain insight into the individual activity spaces (the places that individuals visit on a regular basis)
Identify the functions of different anchor points
Cities characterised as complex systems (e.g. )
Aggregate smoothing of underlying dynamism
Theories exploring spatio-temporal movement constraints
E.g. Time Geography 
Better understanding of:
Who visits particular locations
Which other locations have those people visited
Who might they have met during their journey
First step towards a more realistic model of individual behaviour
The spaces in which an individual's normal activity occurs
Important individual locations (home, work, school, etc.).
Central pillar for diverse disciplines (e.g. criminology, geography)
Very difficult to quantify
New opportunities offered by 'big' crowd-sourced
UK census: ~2000 output areas in Leeds
Microsimulation: ~800,000 individuals
Our twitter data: ~2M points
Big Data = "It won't open in Excel!"
Mobile telephones: ~5Bn events daily
Public transport journeys (Oyster): 3.5M daily tube journeys (not including busses, cycle hire, etc.)
As well as volume, there are difficulties with velocity and variety
Similar to fourth paradigm data intensive research  in the physical sciences
"Crisis" in "empirical sociology" 
"One of the areas that is being most dramatically shaken up by N = all is the social sciences. They have lost their monopoly of making sense of empirical social data, as big data analysis replaces the highly skilled survey specialists of the past. .. When data is collective passively while people do what they normally do anyway, the old biases associated with sampling and questionnaires disappear." 
Large city in north England
Population 757,655 (in 2012)
Central shopping / leisure / commercial area
Social media data
Geo-located Twitter messages from 22 June 2011 to 14 April 2013
N=1,955,655 (after cleaning)
Those with 50+ messages in the data
Kernel density estimation
Highlight areas with high spatial message density for individual users
GIS method used to identify peaks in digital elevation data
Use Landserf free software (Java) 
Anchor points are centres of peaks
Assume highest peak is 'home'
Identify words with distinction spatio-temporal profiles 
Calculate 'domestic skew' - proportion of words that occur at 'home' locations compared to anywhere else ('away').
Explore awareness spaces / anchor points from social media data
Estimate 'home' locations
Some words clearly associated with 'home', others with 'away'
Severe limitations to the data, but future potential is promising.
Best available resource?
Further anlysis. Particularly:
Validation / verification to handle skew, representation, accuracy, bias
Comparison with other data (e.g. geodemogrpahics)
Identify additional activities (shopping, leisure, school, etc.).
National language processing
Leeds Institute for Data Analytics (LIDA) and the Consumer Data Research Centre (CDRC)
Classifying neighbourhoods based on social media contributions
LiveHoods (http://livehoods.org/) 
Functional profiles or areas 
Land use classification 
Identification of user 'patches' (regular activity and function) 
Anchor points in mobile phone data 
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